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English

Without these Peoples and Organisations this Website wouldn't be possible. Every additional information about the autors or organisations are orginally included in this page from the original source of the database. If you found any typos, or false datas in this page feel free to contact us, so that we are able to correct it, or to add additional informations to it.

All original databases where converted into MySQL-format from Dipl.-Ing Michael Lührig <info (at) luehrig-mediendesign (dot) de> from October to November 2007

All emails are "encrypted" to avoid Unsolicited Commercial Email (UCE) / Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE). If you want to contact any of these persons replace the characters (at) with @ and (dot) with a dot (.).


Africaan-German *

Freedict dictionary at http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to TEI format and checked into CVS 10.Jan.2000
This Database was generated from ergane (http://www.travlang.com) - Thanks Copyright (C) 1999 Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Chinesisch-Englisch / Chinese-English (CN-EN)

Tongs in Mandarin Chinese

Chinese is a tonal language. When a syllable of Chinese is pronounced in different tones, it has different meanings, for example, da1 (to put up), da2 (to answer), da3 (to beat), da4 (big).

There are four basic tones in Chinese. We can describe them in terms of their beginning and ending points on a 5 point scale. Point (5) is the highest and (1) is the lowest.

Tone 1 in Mandarin is (55), a high level pitch, since its beginning and ending points are the same - both at the highest end of the scale.

Tone 2 is a high rising tone. It begins at the middle of the scale (3) and rises to the highest point. We represent this as (35).

Tone 3 begins in the low mid range (2), drops to the lowest point (1) and then rises to level (4). We therefore use (214) to represent this low dipping pitch. When practising, please note that if there are two Tone 3 syllables in the same tone combination, the first syllable should be articulated in Tone 2 instead of Tone 3.

Tone 4 begins at the highest point (5) and drops sharply to the lowest point (1). We therefore use (51) to represent this high falling pitch.

In addition to the four basic tones, there is one special and important change of tone called the neutral tone. The neutral tone is not an independent element that stands by itself; it occurs only in connection with and related to the tone preceding it. This tone is always short and unstressed. Inside this dictionary, the neutral tone are marked as 5.

This dictionary module is created by:
Mr. Ming-gang Mo
<mgmo (at) lineone (dot) net>

Recommanded reference addresses:
1. HaoYao.com learn chinese, mandarin tones
http://www.haoyao.com/mandtones/mandarintones.htm
2. Chinese Tones and Prosody
http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Pagoda/3847/sapienti/anctones.htm
3. HANYU Learn Mandarin Online
http://wwli.com/languages/zhongwen/index.php
4. Learning Chinese Online
http://www.csulb.edu/~txie/online.htm
5. Chinese Pronunciation Guide
http://icg.harvard.edu/~pinyin/

The word list used was the public-domain Chinese-English dictionary from CEDICT project, copyrighted by Paul Andrew Denisowski.
This dictionary module may be freely used by individuals, and may be accessed by software belonging to, or operated by, such individuals. Any distribution of the module must take place without a financial return, except a charge to cover the cost of the distribution medium.


Chinesisch-Deutsch (CN-DE)

Das freie Chinesisch-Deutsche Wörterbuch wurde von den Seiten des Juniorenkreises der Chinesisch-Deutschen Gesellschaft http://chdw.de heruntergeladen
Der Inhalt der Wörterbuch-Dateien ist unter einer Creative Commons-Lizenz lizenziert.


Deutsch-Englisch (DE-EN)

German English wordlist
Version 1.1

Copyright (c):
Frank Richter
<Frank.Richter (at) hrz (dot) tu-chemnitz (dot) de>, 1995 - 2000

License:
GPL Version 2; GNU General Public Licence


Deutsch-Englisch (DE-EN) Bahnwesen

credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Deutsch-Spanisch (DE-ES)

credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Deutsch-Französisch (DE-FR) *

German-French Freedict dictionary

http//www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated
from ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Deutsch-Griechisch (DE-GR)

Credits: to bo done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Deutsch Italienisch (DE-IT) *

German-Italian Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

3. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and checked;into CVS

10.April 2000
This Database was generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999
Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Deutsch-Holländisch (DE-NL ) *

German-Nederland Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Deutsch-Portugiesisch (DE-PT) *

German-Portugese Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

3. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and checked;into CVS

1.Feb 2000
This Database was generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!

Copyright (C) 2000 Horst;
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Dänisch-Englisch (DK-EN) *

Danish-English Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

1.Jan.2000
This Database was generated from;ergane
(http://www.travlang.com) - Thanks

Copyright (C) 1999;Horst Eyermann
<Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Englisch-Chinesisch (EN-CN)

Tongs in Mandarin Chinese

Chinese is a tonal language. When a syllable of Chinese is
pronounced in different tones, it has different meanings, for
example, da1 (to put up), da2 (to answer), da3 (to beat), da4
(big).

There are four basic tones in Chinese. We can describe them
in terms of their beginning and ending points on a 5 point
scale. Point (5) is the highest and (1) is the lowest.

Tone 1 in Mandarin is (55), a high level pitch, since its
beginning and ending points are the same - both at the highest
end of the scale.

Tone 2 is a high rising tone. It begins at the middle of the scale
(3) and rises to the highest point. We represent this as (35).

Tone 3 begins in the low mid range (2), drops to the lowest
point (1) and then rises to level (4). We therefore use (214) to
represent this low dipping pitch. When practising, please note
that if there are two Tone 3 syllables in the same tone
combination, the first syllable should be articulated in Tone 2
instead of Tone 3.

Tone 4 begins at the highest point (5) and drops sharply to the
lowest point (1). We therefore use (51) to represent this high
falling pitch.

In addition to the four basic tones, there is one special and
important change of tone called the neutral tone. The neutral
tone is not an independent element that stands by itself; it
occurs only in connection with and related to the tone
preceding it. This tone is always short and unstressed. Inside
this dictionary, the neutral tone are marked as 5.

This dictionary module is created by:
Mr. Ming-gang Mo

Recommanded reference addresses:
1. HaoYao.com learn chinese, mandarin tones
http://www.haoyao.com/mandtones/mandarintones.htm
2. Chinese Tones and Prosody
http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Pagoda/3847/sapienti/anc
tones.htm
3. HANYU Learn Mandarin Online
http://wwli.com/languages/zhongwen/index.php
4. Learning Chinese Online
http://www.csulb.edu/~txie/online.htm
5. Chinese Pronunciation Guide
http://icg.harvard.edu/~pinyin/


Englisch-Tschechisch (EN-CZ)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Englisch-Deutsch (EN-DE )

Guide to Pronunciation

Consonants

f,h,k,l,m,n,p,t,x - as in English
b - 1) at the end of a word or syllable, like p in up.
2) otherwise, as in English.
c - 1) before e, i, o and a, like ts in fits.
2) elsewhere, like c in cat.
ch - 1) soft, like a 'hissed' sh in ship.
2) hard, like ch in Scotish loch.
d - 1) at the end of a word or syllable, like t in tap.
2) elsewhere, like d in dog.
g 1) when after 'i' at the end of a word, like soft 'ch'.
2) like g in god, but at the end of a word like ck in pack.
j like y in yes.
qu k followed by v.
r rolled in the back of the mouth.
s 1) before or between vowels, like z in zoo.
2) before p and t and at the start of a syllable, like sh in
shoe.
3) otherwise, like s in sip.
 like s in sip. (similar to 'ss')
sch - like sh in ship.
tsch - like ch in church.
z, tz - like ts in hits.
v - like f in fog.
w - like v in vet.

Vowels

NOTE: vowels are usually long when followed by a 'h' or by
one consonant, or short when followed by two consonents.

a - 1) long, like a in far.
2) short, like u in cut.
 - 1) long, like air in fair.
2) short, like e in pet.
e - 1) long, like a in make.
2) short, like e in bed.
3) unstressed, like a in about.
i - 1) long, like i in ski.
2) short, like i in hit.
o 1) long, like o in note.
2) short, like o in hot.
 - like ur in fur.
u - 1) long, like oo food.
2) short, like oo in foot.
, y - no English equivalent. Like French u in une.

Diphthongs

ai,ay,ei,ey - like igh in high.
au - like ow in cow.
u, eu - like oy in toy.
ie - like ee in fee.


Englisch-Dänisch (EN-DK)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Englisch-Welsh (EN-EN) *

English-Welsh Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

3.May2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine generated from;MBRODICT

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to TEI
format;and checked into CVS

10.Jan 2000
This Database was generated;from
ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!

Copyright (C);1999 Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Englisch-Spanisch (EN-ES) *

English-Spanish Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

This English-Spanish dictionary contains also vocabulary words
from the popular, college text entitled, "Dos mundos" (McGraw
Hill). The letters or numbers in parentheses. e.g., (10), indicate
the chapter in the book in which the word is first encountered
in the vocabulary. The gender of nouns is indicated, except
for
masculine nouns ending in -o and feminine nouns ending in -a.
Stem changes and spelling changes are indicated for verbs,
e.g., dormir (ue, u);llegar (gu). Phrases are included with the
individual words.

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS10.Jan
2000 This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-

3. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and checked;into CVS

10.Jan 2000
This Database was generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999 Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Englisch-Esperanto (EN-Esperanto)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Englisch-Franzuösisch (EN-FR) *

English-French Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine;generated from MBRODICT

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated;from
ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C);1999 Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Englisch-Hawaiianisch (EN-Hawai)

Credits to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary

[notes]
In this file, macrons -- the lines that appear over long vowels --
have been omitted. Glottal stops are indicated, however.


Englisch-Ungarisch (EN-HR)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary

[notes]
Guide to Pronunciation

Croatian language is easily pronounced because a letter
always has the same pronounciation no matter where it may
occur. It contains no sounds which are not found in English.

Croatian alphabet
a, b, c, c, c, d, dj, dz, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, lj, m, n, nj, o, p, r, s, s,
t,
u, v, z, z
(all special Croatian characters have been converted to ASCII)

Vowels
a like a in bath
e like e in let
i like i in hit
o like a in ball
u like u in full

Consonants
c like ts in cats
c like ch in church
c like ch in cheap
dz like j in jump
dj like j in jeep
g like g in go
h like h in half
j like y in yes
lj like l in failure
nj like n in news
r like r in ring
s like s in sad
s like sh in ship
z like z in zero
z like s in measure
b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, t, v as in English


Englisch-Ungarisch (EN-HU)

[notes]
This dictionary has been collected, edited and transformed by
Gabor Fabian (PSNC)


Englisch-Irisch (EN-IE) *

English-Irish Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

3. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and checked;into CVS

9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine generated;from MBRODICT (
http://tcts.fpms.ac.be/synthesis/mbrdico/)

10.April 2000
This Database was generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999 Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Englisch-Indisch (EN-IN)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary

[notes]
PRONUNCIATION:

Vowels
a as in 'cat'
A as in 'fAr'
e as in 'bed'
i as in 'inn'
o as in 'shot'
O as in 'rOle

Consonants
(pronounced as in English except for:)
s as in 'shine'
c as in 'chin'
ng as in 'singer'
j as in 'juice' or 'yoga' (varies)

T,D (retroflex sounds)
Th,Dh (aspirated retroflex sounds)
R (retroflex flap, as in 'ladder')

other consonants when capitalized indicate nasalization of
sound

GRAMMAR:

Sentence structure is 'subject-object-verb'.

PRONOUNS (pol/inf/int):

I: Ami
you(sg): Apni/tumi/tui
he/she: tini/se
we: AmrA
you(pl): ApnArA/tomrA/torA
they: TArA/tArA
my: AmAr
your: ApnAr/tOmAr/tOr
his/her: Tar/tAr/tAr
our: AmAder
your: ApnAder/tOmAder/tOder
their: TAder/tAder/tAder


Englisch-Italienisch (EN-IT)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Englisch-Japanisch (EN-JP)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Englisch-Koreanisch (EN-KR) - (Bibelnamen und Plätze) , (Abküzungen), (Industriewörterbuch)

--- English Note ---
----------------------------
- This dictionary was made (compiled) by BlueSeptember.
- The original source is indicated, if needed.
- I am NOT responsible for any misuse, loss, damage (or even
if
you are fired ;-> ) by using this dictionary.
- Updates may be available later on, and if so, a link will be
provided in the future.
- If neccessary, this dictionary may be freely distributed and
updated at your free-will.
- Any comments/suggesion to <BlueSeptember (at) yahoo (dot) com>


Englisch-Lateinisch (EN-Latein)

English-Latin Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

3. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and checked;into CVS

9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine generated;from MBRODICT(
http://tcts.fpms.ac.be/synthesis/mbrdico/)

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999 Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Englisch-Holländisch (EN-NL) *

English-Netherlands Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

3. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and checked;into CVS

9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine generated;from MBRODICT(
http://tcts.fpms.ac.be/synthesis/mbrdico/)

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999 Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Englisch-Phillipinisch (EN-PH)

[notes]
From Ergane


Englisch-Pourtugieseisch (EN-PT)

[notes]
Módulo de dicionário Inglês-Português para Palm OS

Para ler a pronúncia (quando houver) devem ser seguidas
algumas regras:
As pronúncias são identificadas por estarem entre colchetes

Alguns símbolos:
' = sílaba tônica Ex:table = ['teibou]
: = prolongar o som da vogal Ex:indeed = [in'di:d]
Basta ler normalmente em português para o restante

VERBOS IRREGULARES

arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
bear bore borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
befall befell befallen
beget begot begotten, begot
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bid bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgot, forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten, got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden, hid
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
overcome overcame overcome
overtake overtook overtaken
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spit spit, spat spit, spat
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
tread trod trodden
undergo underwent undergone
understand understood understood
uphold upheld upheld
wear wore worn
win won won
wind wound wound
write wrote written


Englisch-Serbisch (EN-RS)

[notes]
English-Serbian module for Dictionary (PalmOS)

Words converted from some Amiga dictionary word-base to
Dictionary(PalmOS) format by Nemanja Bondzulic.

Phrases has been taken from a book called "Engleskis
izgovorom - prakticni prirucnik" by Dusan Vitas and all those
phrases are typed in by Jasna Bondzulic.

If you want to complain about something, or to report typos in
this module feel free to write to <nemanja (at) indus3 (dot) org>.

6 August 2k1

http://www.indus3.org


Englisch-Russisch (EN-RU) Wörterbuch (inkl. Bezeichnungen aus der Radiotechnik)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary

[notes]

English-Russian Dictionary
including Radio-Physics


Englisch-Schwedisch (EN-SE)

Credits to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Englisch-Slowakisch (EN-SK)

Credits to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Englisch-Synonyme (EN-Synonyms) & WordNet

wordnet 1.6 Synonyms,
converted by Horst Eyermann, the maintainer of
the FreeDict (http://www.freedict.de) dictionaries

This software and database is being provided to you, the LICENSEE, by
Princeton University under the following license. By obtaining, using
and/or copying this software and database, you agree that you have
read, understood, and will comply with these terms and conditions.:

Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and
database and its documentation for any purpose and without fee or
royalty is hereby granted, provided that you agree to comply with
the following copyright notice and statements, including the disclaimer,
and that the same appear on ALL copies of the software, database and
documentation, including modifications that you make for internal
use or for distribution.

WordNet 1.6 Copyright 1997 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

THIS SOFTWARE AND DATABASE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND PRINCETON
UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PRINCETON
UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF MERCHANT-
ABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE
OF THE LICENSED SOFTWARE, DATABASE OR DOCUMENTATION WILL NOT
INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY PATENTS, COPYRIGHTS, TRADEMARKS OR
OTHER RIGHTS.

The name of Princeton University or Princeton may not be used in
advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software
and/or database. Title to copyright in this software, database and
any associated documentation shall at all times remain with
Princeton University and LICENSEE agrees to preserve same.


Englisch-Thailändisch (EN-TH)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Spanisch-Englisch (ES-EN)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


File-Extensions

--- English Note ---
----------------------------
- This dictionary was made (compiled) by BlueSeptember.
- The original source is indicated, if needed.
- I am NOT responsible for any misuse, loss, damage (or even if you are fired ;-> ) by using this dictionary.
- Updates may be available later on, and if so, a link will be provided in the future.
- If neccessary, this dictionary may be freely distributed and updated at your free-will.
- Any comments/suggesion to <BlueSeptember (at) yahoo (dot) com>


Französisch-Deutsch (FR-DE) *

French-German Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine;generated from MBRODICT

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated;from
ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C);1999 Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Französisch-Englisch (FR-EN) *

French-English Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) - machine;
generated from MBRODICT

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated;from
ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C);1999 Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Französisch-Holländisch (FR-NL) *

French-Nederlands Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine-generated from MBRODICT

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated;from
ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C);1999 Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Französisch-Norwegisch (FR-NO)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Ungarisch-Englisch (HU-EN)

This dictionary has been collected, edited and transformed by
Gabor Fabian (PSNC)


Indonesisch-Deutsch (ID-DE)

Personalpronomen/persönliches Fürwort:
-------------------------------------
1. P.Sg. ich. - saya; aku;
2. P.Sg. du - anda; kamu; engkau;
Sie - anda; saudari Bapak
saudara Ibu;
3. P.Sg. er, sie - dia; beliau; Bapak/Ibu;
es - itu; Bapak/Ibu;

1. P.Pl. wir - kita; (inkl.)
- kami; (exkl.)
2. P.Pl. ihr - kalian;
3. P.Pl. sie - mereka;

Possessivpronomen
-----------------
Das Possessivpronomen ist identisch mit dem Personalpronomen,
nur wird es nachgestellt, d.h. es steht hinter dem
Wort, das es näher bestimmt. Dia wird zu -nya.

rumah saya mein Haus
rumah anda dem/Zur Baus
rumah Bapak Ihr Haus
rumah Ibu Ihr Haus
rumahnya sein/ihr Haus
rumah beliau (höflich) sein/ihr Haus
rumah kita unser Haus
rumah kamt unser Haus
rumah kalian euer Haus
rumah mereka ihr Haus

Besitzanzeigende (Genitiv-) Strukturen
--------------------------------------
um ein Besitzverhältnis (eine Genitiv-Struktur) in der Bahasa
Indonesia auszudrücken wird, wie oben erwähnt, das Possessiv-
pronomen in Form des Personalpronomens hinter das jeweilige
Nomen gestellt.

Hier treten auch häufig die folgenden Formen auf:

-ku (von aku - ich) rumahku - mein Haus
-mu (von kamu - du) sepedamu - dein Fahrrad
-nya (von dia - er/sie) anaknya - sein/ihr Kind

Ortsangaben:
------------
depan
dari depan von vorne
di depan vorne
ke depan nach vorne

belakang
dari belakang von hinten
di belakang hinten
ke belakang nach hinten

atas
dari atas von oben
di atas oben
ke atas nach oben

bawah
dari bawah von unten
di bawah unten
ke bawah nach unten

sebelah
dari sebelah von der Seite
di sebelah neben (-an)
ke sebelah zur Seite/an die Seite

sebelah kiri
dari sebelah kiri von der linken Seite, von links
di sebelah kiri an der linken Seite, links neben
ke sebelah kiri nach links, an die linke Seite

sebelah kanan
dari sebelah kanan von der rechten Seite, von rechts
di sebelah kanan an der rechten Seite, rechts neben
ke sebelah kanan nach rechts, an die rechte Seite

Klassifikatoren:
----------------
In der Bahasa Indonesia werden die Nomen mit einem
Klassifikator ausgedrückt, wie im Deutschen z.B. ein Stück
Brot, ein Blatt Papier usw. Es gibt verschiedene Klassifikato-
ren. Menschen werden mit orang, Tiere mit ekor, Gegenstände
mit buah (in der Umgangsprache mit biji) bezeichnet. Selten in
der Umgangsprache, immer jedoch in der Schriftsprache wer-
den noch weitere Klassifikatoren verwendet:

orang für Personen
batang für stabförmige Gegenstande, z.B. rokok (Zigaretten);
pohon (Baum); Pflanzen
helai/lembar für feine dünne Gegenstände, z.B. rambut (Haar),
kertas (Papier); uang kertas (Geldschein)
butir für harte runde Gegenstände, z.B. telur (Ei);
manik (Glasperle).
bentuk für alles, was geformt wird (Ringe...)
ekor für Tiere
pasang für Paare, z.B. sebatu Schuhe, telinga Ohren
buah für Gegenstände
pucuk für Briefe

Wortbildung: Nominalbildung
---------------------------
Bei Wortbildungen mit pe + Wortstamm (Verb/Adjektiv) wird
in der Regel die handelnde Person bzw. der Träger der
entsprechenden Eigenschaft bezeichnet.

Wortstamm: pe..+ Wortstamm

beli (kaufen) pembeli (Käufer)
diam (schweigen) pendiam (Schweigsamer)
jual (verkaufen) penjual (Verkäufer)
makan (essen) pemakan (Esser, Fresser)
marah (ärgerlich) pemarah (Choleriker)
masak (kochen) pemasak (Koch, Kochgeräte)
minum (trinken) peminum (Trinker; Säufer)
tidur (schlafen) penidur (Schlafmütze;Langschläfer)

Systematik der Bildung:

pen bei Wortstämmen, die mit t,d,c,j beginnen, t fällt weg
pem bei Wortstämmen, die mit p,b beginnen, p fällt weg

Adjektiv
--------
Adjektiv + sekali = sehr (nachgestellt)

Rumah itu kecii sekali. (Das Haus ist sehr klein).
Papaya itu mahal sekali. (Diese Papaya ist sehr teuer).

terlalu + Adjektiv = zu sehr (vorangestellt)

Mobil itu terlalu besar. (Das Auto ist zu groß).
Makanan ini terlalu pedas. (Dieses Essen ist zu scharf).

Nominalbildung: Stammform + an
------------------------------
makan makanan = das Essen
minum minuman = das Getränk
masak masakan = die Küche, das Gekochte
sambung sambungan = die Leitung
jual jualan = die zu verkaufende Ware

Verbbildung: me + Stammform
---------------------------
lihat melihat
ambil mengambü Vokal - meng-
pukul memukul p - mem- p
beli membeli b - mem-
tawar menawar t - men- t
dapat mendapat d - men-
kira mengira k - meng- k
ganggu mengganggu g - meng-
coba mencoba c - men-
jual menjual j - men-
simpan menyimpan s - meny-

Verbbildung: ber + Stammform
----------------------------
jalan Bu Resmi berjalan.
kata Dia berkata: ".................."
tanya Guru bertanya: "..............."

Diese Bildung kennzeichnet in der Regel Verben,
die kein Objekt erfordern.

Passiv: di + Stammwort
----------------------
lihat dilihat werden gesehen
ambil diambil werden mitgenommen
campur dicampur werden gemischt
beli dibeli werden gekauft
tawar ditawar werden heruntergehandelt


Indonesisch-Englisch (ID-EN)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Irisch-Englisch (IE-EN) *

Irish-English Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000
Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS

1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!

Copyright (C) 1999;Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Akronyme und Abkürzungen aus der IT (Informationstechnologie)

[IT Acronyms & Abbreviations v1.1, 09-30-2002]

----------------------------

--- English Note ---
----------------------------
- This dictionary was made (compiled) by BlueSeptember.
- The original source is indicated, if needed.
- I am NOT responsible for any misuse, loss, damage (or even if you are fired ;-> ) by using this dictionary.
- Updates may be available later on, and if so, a link will be provided in the future.
- If neccessary, this dictionary may be freely distributed and updated at your free-will.
- Any comments/suggesion to <BlueSeptember (at) yahoo (dot) com>


Japanisch-Deutsch (JP-DE) *

Japanese-German Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS1.Jan
2000This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Japanisch-Englisch (JP-EN)

04APR97 V97-002
Main Japanese-English Electronic Dictionary File
Copyright J.W. Breen - 1997


Japanisch-Spanisch (JP-ES)

Diccionario Japonés/Español RUI
Versión Beta 1

Copyright 2003
Antonio Francisco Barberán Pelegrín
(Paco Barberán)
<pacobarberan (at) wanadoo (dot) es>
Zaragoza- España

Contenido, originalmente publicado en:
http://www.asakiyumemishi.com/gunkan/cjapo2

Adaptación para plataforma Palm.
Juan López Montero
<jalmontero (at) hotmail (dot) com>
Madrid-España


Lateinisch-Deutsch (Latin-DE) *

Latin-German Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

27. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS1.Jan
2000This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks! Copyright (C) 2000;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Lateinisch-Englisch (Latin-EN) *

Latin-English Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS1.Jan
2000This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Mr. Honey's

Mr Honey's Banking Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001 by Winfried Honig

Release Date: June, 2002
[Yes, we are about one year ahead of schedule]
[The actual date this file first posted = 03/18/01]

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

Mr Honey's Beginner Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

Title: Mr Honey's Correspondence Dictionary
(English-German (C) 2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

Title: Mr Honey's First Banking Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

Title: Mr Honey's Insurance Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

Mr Honey's Large Business Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Language: English and German

Copyright 2002 63,700 entries
10th revised and enlarged edition
Mr Honey's LARGER Business Dictionary
<winfried (dot) honig (at) online (dot) de>

Winfried Honig, Mr Honey
Franz-Reichel-Ring 12,
90473 Nuernberg, Germany
Tel. 0911 - 80 84 45

see: http://mrhoney.de
http://www.dicdata.de
http://dict.leo.org

arranged, collected and compiled for http://www.inua.de
Altdorf University

Title: Mr Honey's Medium Business Dictionary
(English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

Title: Mr Honey's Small Business Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German
Title: Mr Honey's Work Study Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

Title: Mr Honey's First Touristic Dictionary (English-German)
(C)2001, 2002 by Winfried Honig

Author: Winfried Honig

Release Date: July, 2002

Edition: 10

Language: English and German

In the 1970s Winfried Honig, known as Mr Honey, started
compiling and computerizing English/German dictionaries,
partly to provide his colleagues and students with samples of
the language of business, partly to collect convincing material
for his State Department of Education to illustrate the need for
special dictionaries covering the special language used in
different branches of the industry.

In 1997 Mr Honey began to feed his wordlists into the LEO
Online Dictionary http://dict.leo.org of the Technische
Universität München, and in 2000 into the DicData Online
Dictionary http://www.dicdata.de

While more than 500.000 daily visitors use the online versions,
CD-ROM versions are available, see:
http://www.leo.org/dict/cd_en.html http://www.dicdata.de
http://mrhoney.purespace.de/latest.htm Mr. Honey would be
pleased to answer questions sent to <winfried (dot) honig (at) online (dot) de>.

Permission granted to use the word-lists, on condition that links
to the sites of LEO, DICDATA and MR HONEY are
maintained.

Mr Honey's services are non-commercial to promote the
language of business both in English and in German.


Holländisch-Deutsch (NL-DE) *

Nederlands-German Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS
9.Jan.2000Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine;generated from MBRODICT
(;http://tcts.fpms.ac.be;synthesis;mbrd
ico )1.Jan 2000This;Database was
generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 1999
Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Holländisch-Englisch (NL-EN) *

Nederlands-English Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS
9.Jan.2000Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine;generated from MBRODICT
(;http://tcts.fpms.ac.be;synthesis;mbrd
ico )1.Jan 2000This;Database was
generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000
Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Holländisch-Französisch (NL-FR) *

Nederlands-French Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS
9.Jan.2000Phonetics added (H.Ey) -
machine;generated from MBRODICT
(;http://tcts.fpms.ac.be;synthesis;mbrd
ico )1.Jan 2000This;Database was
generated from
ergane;(http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000
Horst;Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Holländisch-Italienisch (NL-IT)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


US-POST Abbr. (Abkürzungen)

--- English Note ---
----------------------------
- This dictionary was made (compiled) by BlueSeptember.
- The original source is indicated, if needed.
- I am NOT responsible for any misuse, loss, damage (or even if you are fired ;-> ) by using this dictionary.
- Updates may be available later on, and if so, a link will be provided in the future.
- If neccessary, this dictionary may be freely distributed and updated at your free-will.
- Any comments/suggesion to <BlueSeptember (at) yahoo (dot) com>


Portugiesisch-Deutsch (PT-DE)

Portugese-German Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS1.Jan
2000This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Portugiesisch-Spanisch (PT-EN)

[notes]
Dicionario Portugues - Espanhol
versao 1.02
Setembro 2002
R.Vivanco


Russisch-Englisch (RU-EN)

Credits: to be done... feel free to contact us, if you have exact informations for this dictionary


Russisch-Französisch (RU-FR)

En raison des limitations du systeme d'exploitation de Palm, les
accents francais sont absents.

Signification des abreviations francaises

adj. = adjectif
adv. = adverbe
ch. = chiffre
conj. = conjonction
int. = interjection
n.f. = nom feminin
n.m. = nom masculin
plur. = pluriel
prep. = preposition
pro. = pronom
v. = verbe

Par Benoit Gascon
2002


Schottisch-Deutsch (Schottish(Gaelic)-DE) *

Scottish-German Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS1.Jan
2000This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Schottisch-Englisch (Schottish(Gaelic)-EN)

These words are mostly from the out of copyright "MacFarlane's (Scottish-) Gaelic-English dictionary" prepared for the use of learners of the Gaelic language by Malcolm MacFarlane, published by Eneas MacKay, Bookseller 43 Murray Place, Stirling. 1912.


Holländisch-Französisch (NL-FR), Englisch (NL-EN), Deutsch (NL-DE), Italienisch (NL-IT) *

Freedict dictionary at http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to TEI format and checked into CVS 9.Jan.2000
Phonetics added (H.Ey) - machine generated from MBRODICT (http://tcts.fpms.ac.be/synthesis/mbrdico) 1.Jan 2000
This Database was generated from ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!
Copyright (C) 2000 Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Schottisch-Deutsch *

Freedict dictionary at http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to TEI format and checked into CVS1.Jan 2000.
This Database was generated from ergane (http://www.travlang.com).- Thanks!
Copyright (C) 2000 Horst Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Slovenisch-Englisch (SK-EN) *

Slovenian-English Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS1.Jan
2000This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Türkisch-Deutsch (TR-DE) *

Turkish-German Freedict dictionary

http://www.freedict.de

30. Apr. 2000 Database was converted to
TEI format and;checked into CVS1.Jan
2000This Database was generated
from;ergane (http://www.travlang.com).-
Thanks!Copyright (C) 2000;Horst
Eyermann <Horst (at) freedict (dot) de>


Weltsprachen - World spoken languages

Are you traveling to a foreign land and need to know what
language is spoken there, or do you just want to impress your
friends with what languages are spoken where? Well this
lexicon is for you. Thanks for downloading and please visit us
on the web at "Apsoft.2ya.com".


Vietnamesisch (VN) -> Deutsch (DE), Englisch (EN), Französisch (FR), Norwegisch (NO), Vietnamesisch (VN) *

Deutsch - Vietnamesisch (DE-VN) *

- This is the Vietnamese-French/German/English/Norway/Vietnamese and German-Vietnamese dictionary database of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project.
- It contains a lot entries with definitions and illustrative examples.
- This database was compiled by Ho Ngoc Duc and other members of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project (http://www.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/~duc/Dict/)
- Copyright (C) 1997-2003 The Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project


* (zusätzliche Informationen / additional informations)

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

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